During this first turn in lgbt policy development in the SAF, the arguments used to legitimize the exclusion of homosexual men, enabled primarily through the mmrp, revolved around notions of security and threat in different ways.
Here, masculinity was (and is) actively and consciously constructed and consolidated, oftentimes in relation and in contrast to notions of femininity, as streamate topless buigen video's well as, in late modern history, homosexuality (Bulmer 2011 ; Connell 2009 ; Hearn and Parkin 1995 ; Herbert 1998 ; Higate 2003.
During the 1980s and 1990s, new written statements were issued, repeating the content of the 1979 policy (ÖB 1985 ; SAF 1996 ).The solution was described as increased lgbt competence among staff (through education initiatives) and a public display of tolerance and openness (through,.g., participation in the capitals Pride festival).It is only recently (SAF 2014 ) that such challenges have begun to be addressed.Ja, door hier te klikken ga ik akkoord met de cookies.The study, conducted by Captain Krister Fahlstedt ( 2000 ) while enrolled in the National Defense Colleges officers program, highlighted homosexual personnels experiences of discrimination, and stressed the need for the SAF to address the problems.It was expressed as a concern for the individual gay soldiers mental and physical health, related to anticipated exposure to harassment from other conscripts, and/or difficulties adjusting to the group.This article has outlined lgbt policy developments in the Swedish military, from 1944 and the de-criminalization of homosexual acts, to 2014 when the Supreme Commander and the Minister of Defense marched together in the Stockholm Pride parade.During both of them, the established ways of representing homosexuality as a problem were dislocated and re-negotiated in significant ways.1996 ; Kaplan and Ben-Ari 2000 ; Lehring 2003 ; Rimmerman 1996 ; Trivette 2010 ).In the study of gender and sexuality in social and labor history, the military provides a privileged empirical setting.While we have chosen to adhere to contemporary parlance we strive to make clear when the documents we explore do in fact deal with lgbt or with a particular group, identity, or conduct within this umbrella acronym.The 1980 revision, in turn, removed homosexuality from the mmrp with reference to its removal from the Swedish Classification of Diseases in the previous fall (FSS 1980 ).Inspired by the work of Carol Lee Bacchi ( 1999, 2009 we use policy material to analyze the representation of lgbt in, and in relation to, the SAF.General Accounting Office report from the early 1990s (GAO 1993 which reviewed policy steps regarding homosexuals in the military in 25 nations, including Sweden.
As noted by Rydström ( 2007 the seduction theory was highly influential in Swedish politics on homosexuality in the mid-1900s, and continued to influence legislation until the end of the 1970s.
At this point, prejudice in society domestically and internationally was described as something the SAF could and must combat.
The first was based on homosexuality as risk: to national security, to the individual gay soldier, and to his potentially susceptible peers and subordinates.We must take our responsibility as an employer and bring about a change of attitude, he declared, and committed to getting personally involved should any case of sexual orientation discrimination or harassment within the SAF come to his attention (SAF 2002,.Scholarly debate theorizing on gender and sexuality in the military context, however, problematizes the ways in which lgbt rights, as well as womens rights, are used to legitimize the military organization, states military spending, and western imperialism (e.g., Basham 2013 ; Puar 2007 ; Spade.The Supreme Commander, in nato terminology Chief of Defence, is the authoritative head and central supervisor of the SAF, reporting to the Swedish government which is the highest executive authority of the SAF.The responsibility of managing both of these aspects was assigned to the homosexual individual: What is crucial is the individuals capacity to deal with (that is, accept, control and find an outlet for) his sexuality.The Supreme Commanders first policy statement marks the end of the first turn in SAF lgbt policy, a period in which homosexuality in the military had been challenged and re-negotiated in important ways.Rather, we argue that key policy changes took place during two quite distinct time periods, described in the following as policy turns.The Swedish Armed Forces Since the late 1800s, Swedens official security policy has emphasized the nations non-participation in military alliances during peacetime, aiming at neutrality in the event of war.In 2008, transgender identity and expressions was added to the new Anti-Discrimination Act, which took effect gay chat ondergoed the following year, and in 2013 the requirement for sterilization in order for a person to change their legal gender was abolished after years of activist work (Parliament 2013 ).Beginning with the de-criminalization of same-sex sexual relations in 1944 and concluding with the Supreme Commander and the Minister of Defense marching together for lgbt rights in the Pride parade in the nations capital 70 years later, Table summarizes internal and external policy developments relating.In the late 1990s, parliament further strengthened and supplemented previous anti-discrimination acts.
For a mature individual for whom, for example, homosexuality or other so-called deviant behavior is an accepted and controlled part of his personality, this behavior is no grounds for special treatment in the Armed Forces.
Women were thereby indirectly barred from all militaryand most of the so-called civil-militarypositions (paid as well as unpaid) within the SAF until the 1980s, when they were granted formal access to the same qualifying training as conscripted men, as well as the right to serve.
Therefore, outlining the developments demanded thorough investigations into a wide range of archives.